Logic Families in Digital Electronics - TTL, CMOS, and ECL

Most electronic systems which are responsible for modern advances are based on digital technology. All digital systems, computers and microprocessors are assembled from simple circuits called logic circuits. The basic building blocks of logic circuits are logic gates. And logic gates themselves are simple electronic circuits comprising of diodes, transistors and resistors.

Typical Cable Laying Details For Direct Buried, Low Tension Cables

Most Construction projects requires underground cabling system for its power supply, some times High tension system too. The architects and builders are least bothered about how this cables routed to the premises and equipment. If electrical professionals pointed out the feasibility, the aesthetics of the project would touch to the intended level. Hence, in the planning stage itself the routes and size of the power cable trench to be incorporated in the project design.

Construction Specification For Electrical Busbar Trunking (Bus Duct) System

Busbar Trunking System (BBT) in electrical construction, uses to transporting electrical power to a shorter distance but many utilization point, say, within the building or a compound of facilities. Though cables can also be used in these areas, their economic impact would be high if compared to the effective Busbar Trunking System. It will help us to tap power directly from where we want it to be and make utilize to the service point.

Method of Clean Earthing or Grounding in Electrical System

Clean earth grounding or low noise earth shall be provided as required, to ensure that the level of induced or conducted interference from external sources, including the facility power grounding system, does not produce incidence of malfunction of the equipment, which is unacceptable for the operating system. The electronics systems must be protected by providing a network path having low impedance for interconnecting its equipment.

Proper routing, zoning and shielding of the cables / earth wires are important and must serve the purpose of preventing sources of electrical disturbances from the operation of electrical equipment.

Advantages of WiMAX Broadband - Long Distance Wireless Technology

WiMAX Broadband Internet is an IP based Wireless Broadband Access Technology utilizing IEEE 802.16e-2005 standard as the air interface. WiMAX will provide broadband connectivity anywhere, anytime, for any device and on any network. WiMAX is a unique technology being deployed by BSNL for the first time in India.

Wiring Materials And Installation Methods in Electrical Construction Works

Electrical wiring needs expertise attention to every building projects. It directly related to the safety of human beings and utilities / equipment people handle. The scope of electrical wiring shall cover supply, installation, testing and commissioning of all conduits and accessories, wiring, switches, socket outlets, spur outlets, junction boxes / pull boxes, GI pull wires, ceiling roses making connections etc. This Electrical Construction Article gives comprehensive details of various installation methods, materials used in each installation methods used in building construction projects.

Guidelines for Installation of Emergency Power Diesel Generating Set

We often depends Diesel Electrical Genset as emergency power system due to mains failure. As a professional, the installation of diesel electrical power generator should be as per the clients requirement and to be inline with the authoritative norms and standards. Safety, security, convenience, future expansions etc are to be considered and co-ordinated before start detailing of the genset's installation. The generator should be as close to the main change-over board as possible. In cases like Textile Mills, where there is fear of smoke affecting the quality of the yarn etc., generators may be located away from the Plant / Department.

Electric Appliances

First of all, we have to look into what is the definition of Appliance in-general and specifically for Electric Appliance.

Definition of Appliance

What is the definition of Appliance? The term appliance can be defined as, "a device or apparatus or equipment designed to perform an application or task, other than industrial, benefited in our personal life that uses some kind of technology". In short, an appliance is a machine that reduces a human’s effort in carrying out a specified work or task. For example, a scissor uses to cut our hair, an iron box to ironing our clothes, a TV to watch entertainment programs and news form different parts of the world. Here, scissor uses mechanical technology to perform its function. It uses only mechanical energy that generated by parson it operates, where as, other two appliances use electricity as the source of energy to operate it. Appliances may be indoors or outdoors, fixed or portable or hand held or hand operated or remotely operated or computer controlled and there on.....

Method of Earthing or Grounding for Diesel Generator Plant

Earthing or Grounding of Diesel Generator Plant is important to ensure correct operation of the plant and safety of the people who work over there. Generator neutral (star point) is to be connected by insulated earthing conductor through the neutral earthing link or device to main earthing bar. Neutral earthing conductor is to be suitably sized to carry maximum earth fault current for time it takes the system protection to operate with final conductor temperature not exceeding 160 deg. C, but not less than 30 mm2 per 100 kVA of generator rating, with a minimum of 50 mm2. All emergency power diesel gensets including portable gensets to be connected to grounding conductor.

Also read: Guidelines for installing emergency power diesel genset.

Testing and Commissioning In Electrical Construction Works

At the completion of the electrical installation works, the entire installation shall be subject to the test before final placing in service under the full responsibility of the contractor. Unless Otherwise specifically called for all tests shall be carried out in conformity with IEE regulations. Contractor shall coordinate with the Client and the Supervising Engineer to get electricity from the local supply authority before starting of testing and commissioning.

Master Antenna TV System (MATV) In Electrical Construction Works

Master Antenna Television or MATV means many TV connection outlets from one Master antenna control system. Usually high-rise apartment houses, hotels, schools and cluster based residential area utilizes this kind of TV distribution network. It may or may not include FM radio so that one outlet can receive both TV and FM reception. The scope of this section covers the design, supply, installation, testing and commissioning of Master Antenna TV System, for the reception and distribution of television broadcast signals.

Electrical Earthing or Grounding Electrode Design for Building Construction

Earthing or Grounding Electrode for an effective and reliable electrical earthing system requires proper survey and analysis of project location, type of structures installed and electrical / electronic equipment used in the entire system. The design calculation of the earth electrode systems shall be based on the approved earth resistivity data and the system's fault currents and their duration.

Engineering Drawing / Drafting

Drawing means lines, shapes, finishes, sizes and colour combined to construct objects or structures. It will be a cumbersome task when narrating an idea without drawing, if the idea is an object or structure. Engineering is heavily depending on drawings, since, technical drawing has developed a global language named Engineering Drawing, capable to express its objects and structure to everyone without the barrier of human languages. Engineering Drawings conveniently helps to explain and record an idea that can be smoothly conveyed to one person to other or sometimes to machine too.

Method Statement For Installation Of Electric PVC Conduits And Accessories

Method Statement For Installation Of Electrical PVC Conduits And Accessories In The Concrete Slabs, Columns, Block Works And Concrete Walls

1. Introduction and Scope

This method statement explains the detailed requirements and procedures for the installation of PVC Conduits and accessories in the concrete slabs, columns, block works and concrete walls.

Electrodes for Earthing or Grounding System in Building Construction

A. Ground Rod:

16 mm diameter stainless steel. Driving head is to be high strength steel. Couplings are to be long length silicon bronze, internally threaded. Threads are to be rolled onto rod to ensure uniform layers of copper and strength. Earth rod is to be complete with non-corrosive couplings, head and bolted connector of sufficient size, and number of bolted clamps to connect all cables terminated thereto.

Installation of Structured Cabling For Voice / Data System In Building Construction

The Contractor shall design, supply and install outlet plates, conduits, trunking, trays, wiring, junction boxes, distribution frames, patch panels, data rack, backbone cables, etc. necessary to form a complete structured system for voice and data cabling within the buildings. Cabling / wiring shall be provided for voice system from patch panel location to each voice/data outlet. Draw wires shall be provided in conduits for future data cabling / wiring by others (if applicable). The installation shall comply with the requirements of ANSI / EIA / TIA-568-1991 as appropriate as well as Local Telecom Authority.

Voice and data outlet plates shall be designed to accept industry standard RJ45 plugs.