Earthing or Grounding Electrode for an effective and reliable electrical earthing system requires proper survey and analysis of project location, type of structures installed and electrical / electronic equipment used in the entire system. The design calculation of the earth electrode systems shall be based on the approved earth resistivity data and the system's fault currents and their duration.
The contractor shall supply, installation, test and commission a public address system consisting of power amplifier, mixer power amplifier, microphone module, paging console, cabinet rack, conduits and wiring and all the necessary equipment required by the system shown and described on drawings, bill of quantities and hereinafter.
The value is a function of cost. Therefore, it can be increased either by improving the function or reducing cost. The maximum value is achieved when the function performs reliably at the lowest cost. A key principle of value engineering that basic functions be preserved and not reduced as a result of improvements in value. Thus Value Engineering (VE) is a systematic method to improve the "value" of goods, products or services through an examination of the function.
WiMAX Broadband Internet is an IP based Wireless Broadband Access Technology utilizing IEEE 802.16e-2005 standard as the air interface. WiMAX will provide broadband connectivity anywhere, anytime, for any device and on any network. WiMAX is a unique technology being deployed by BSNL for the first time in India.
The scope of work shall cover laying, connecting, testing and commissioning of low voltage power cables complete with all cable support, cable, cable trays, clamps and joints. Cables to be purchased from who regularly engaged in the manufacturer of electrical cable and wire products of the types and ratings required, whose products have been in satisfactory use in similar service not less than 5 years. The standard of the cables shall comply with National Electrical Manufacturers Association of local standards or any other approved.
Installation Methods of External, Exterior and Outdoor Lighting System includes lighting equipment luminaires, control gears, panel boards, poles, brackets, cabling, and allied minor civil works. All installations are to be carried out under strict supervision of qualified supervisors and engineers. If installation required heavy vehicles, extreme care has to be taken for preventing damages of lighting equipment, control gears and poles.
Modern Buildings essentially implement the needs of Diesel Powered Electricity Generation Plant. It would become an integral part of the building the day building occupied by its tenants. Here we look into what are the objectives, specifications, services to be considered for functioning complete Diesel Powered Electricity Generation Plant installed in a commercial Building.
What Is Engineering? Engineering is an art of applying science to the optimum conversion of the resources of nature to the uses of humankind. It is based principally on physics, chemistry, and mathematics and their extensions into materials science, solid and fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, transfer and rate processes, and systems analysis. It is thus we must define Engineering: "the practical application of science and math to commerce or industry". In other words "the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems".
Special areas like Airports, Port Trusts, Naval Base, Military base, Telecom buildings, Refinery, Petroleum handling areas etc. needed highly sophisticated security and access control system. It provides safety and security for both men and equipment the area handling. Here is the specification and installation methods for SACS.
Occasionally Main Contractor of the construction work depends sub-contractor for accomplishing some smaller or part of the project that may require specialized technical know-how and installation methods. In those cases Main contractor selects some sub-contractors who has capacity to achieve the task within the given time frame. Hence both of the parties, ie., Main contractor and Sub-contractor to be signed an agreement which protects both the parties' interest. Here is a sample for Conditions of Sub-contract Agreement in Construction Works.
In this sample MEP specification section, Mechanical Fire Fighting Services have been described in detail under construction contract work. Main Highlights of this MEP Specification for Fire Fighting Services are: Pipework Generally, Dry Risers, Hose Reels, Fire Hydrants and Sprinkler Installation.
Continuity: Ensure that complete earthing system is electrically continuous and mechanically secure. Locations of main earth bars in substations, electrical rooms, mechanical rooms, hub (Technical) rooms, etc., to be clearly identified by 100mm X 100mm white traffolyte labels, with red lettering, to Engineer's approval.
This specification intended to supply, install, test and commission mineral oil immersed 1500 KVA, 3 phase indoor transformers, fitted with cable boxes, bolts, and all necessary accessories. Transformers shall be indoor type, oil filled, two winding, four off load capacity, 2.5% taps, two above and two below high voltage rating in compliance with IEC 76 or BS 171.
Electrical engineering deals with practical applications involving current flow through conductors; focuses on the design, construction, and operation of electrical systems and equipment. It includes developing, producing and testing of electrical and electronic devices and equipment, such as, generators to produce and distribute electricity, electric motors and other electrical machinery, transmission line.
The acronym MEP became an integral word of a building project in Middle East Gulf region during year 2000. In the inception stage of MEP, there were involvement of only two engineering branches, Mechanical and Electrical, now it included electronics, instrumentation and communication. In some occasions, Mechatronics also partake in the project for smooth completion of the whole MEP works. Companies that carry out MEP works also known as Electro-Mechanical company which has multi-faceted technicians and engineers for effective design, coordination and execution of the works.
Fire Alarm System installation work covered by this section of the specifications includes the furnishing of all labor, equipment, materials, and performance of all operations in connection with the whole Fire Alarm System as shown on the drawings and as herein specified. The requirements of the conditions of the Contract, Supplementary Conditions and General Requirements apply to the work specified in this section.
The metallic sheath and armour of multicore cables shall be bonded together and earthed.
Cable earthing conductors shall be copper strip with appropriate section laid in formed cable trenches or ducts, or fixed to walls, concrete or steel work, by means of clamps or claw type cleats, appropriately secured into suitable wall plugs or tapped holes. The spacing of fixings shall not be greater than 1 m. Where earth strip is buried or laid in positions in which there is danger of corrosion it shall be provided with a corrosion-proof serving of extruded thermo-plastic or self-adhesive PVC tape which for short lengths may be hand applied on Site.
We often depends Diesel Electrical Genset as emergency power system due to mains failure. As a professional, the installation of diesel electrical power generator should be as per the clients requirement and to be inline with the authoritative norms and standards. Safety, security, convenience, future expansions etc are to be considered and co-ordinated before start detailing of the genset's installation. The generator should be as close to the main change-over board as possible. In cases like Textile Mills, where there is fear of smoke affecting the quality of the yarn etc., generators may be located away from the Plant / Department.
In this sample MEP specification section, Mechanical Ductwork, Grilles And Diffusers have been described in detail under construction contract work.
Main Highlights of this MEP Specification
- Mechanical Ductwork
- Mechanical Ductwork Supports
- Mechanical Dampers - General Requirements
- Flexible Joints for Mechanical Ductwork
- Air Intakes and Outlets
- Kitchen Extract Canopies
- Kitchen Extract Air Ductwork
- Access Doors
- Ductwork Test Points
- Ductwork Protection
- Sand Trap Louvres
- Air Valves
- Fire Dampers