Earthing or Grounding of Diesel Generator Plant is important to ensure correct operation of the plant and safety of the people who work over there. Generator neutral (star point) is to be connected by insulated earthing conductor through the neutral earthing link or device to main earthing bar. Neutral earthing conductor is to be suitably sized to carry maximum earth fault current for time it takes the system protection to operate with final conductor temperature not exceeding 160 deg. C, but not less than 30 mm2 per 100 kVA of generator rating, with a minimum of 50 mm2. All emergency power diesel gensets including portable gensets to be connected to grounding conductor.
Busbar Trunking System (BBT) in electrical construction, uses to transporting electrical power to a shorter distance but many utilization point, say, within the building or a compound of facilities. Though cables can also be used in these areas, their economic impact would be high if compared to the effective Busbar Trunking System. It will help us to tap power directly from where we want it to be and make utilize to the service point.
A. Ground Rod:
16 mm diameter stainless steel. Driving head is to be high strength steel. Couplings are to be long length silicon bronze, internally threaded. Threads are to be rolled onto rod to ensure uniform layers of copper and strength. Earth rod is to be complete with non-corrosive couplings, head and bolted connector of sufficient size, and number of bolted clamps to connect all cables terminated thereto.
In electrical projects, both construction as well as maintenance, the following terms used on the Drawings, Specifications and in the actual Work site are equivalent and may be used interchangeably: "earth" and "ground"; "earthing" and "grounding". Besides, this article tries to rectify misinterpretation of some important terms often used by people involved in the electrical earthing / grounding work.
The metallic sheath and armour of multicore cables shall be bonded together and earthed.
Cable earthing conductors shall be copper strip with appropriate section laid in formed cable trenches or ducts, or fixed to walls, concrete or steel work, by means of clamps or claw type cleats, appropriately secured into suitable wall plugs or tapped holes. The spacing of fixings shall not be greater than 1 m. Where earth strip is buried or laid in positions in which there is danger of corrosion it shall be provided with a corrosion-proof serving of extruded thermo-plastic or self-adhesive PVC tape which for short lengths may be hand applied on Site.
The scope of work shall cover laying, connecting, testing and commissioning of low voltage power cables complete with all cable support, cable, cable trays, clamps and joints. Cables to be purchased from who regularly engaged in the manufacturer of electrical cable and wire products of the types and ratings required, whose products have been in satisfactory use in similar service not less than 5 years. The standard of the cables shall comply with National Electrical Manufacturers Association of local standards or any other approved.
Clean earth grounding or low noise earth shall be provided as required, to ensure that the level of induced or conducted interference from external sources, including the facility power grounding system, does not produce incidence of malfunction of the equipment, which is unacceptable for the operating system. The electronics systems must be protected by providing a network path having low impedance for interconnecting its equipment.
Proper routing, zoning and shielding of the cables / earth wires are important and must serve the purpose of preventing sources of electrical disturbances from the operation of electrical equipment.
Capacitor banks help to improve the quality of the electrical power and gives us the more efficient operation of the power system. Capacitor banks are inexpensive if we compare the benefits they deliver to overall power system and can be easily installed anywhere on the network. Automatic Power-factor Correction (APFC) Capacitor Banks also known as Shunt Capacitor Banks (SCB) are installed to provide reactive compensation and power factor correction. The use of APFC improve voltage regulation, saves power loss and improve transmission capabilities.