Here I present a list of popular Engineering and Technology branches and their brief description.
Acoustics is the science concerned with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sound. Acoustic engineering also known as Architectural acoustics. Acoustic engineering focuses on designing of buildings and rooms to make them quiet, improving conditions for listening to speech and music in auditoriums and halls and developing techniques and sound absorbing materials to reduce noise pollution.
Aeronautical engineering concerned primarily with the design and construction of aircraft structures and power units, and with the special problems of flight in the atmosphere. The main emphasis is on airplane and missile flight, but aeronautical engineers work in many related fields such as hydrofoils, which have many problems in common with aircraft wings, and with such devices as air-cushion vehicles, which make use of airflow around the base to lift the vehicle a few feet off the ground, whereupon it is propelled forward by use of propellers or gas turbines.
Aerospace engineering concerns the development and study of various technologies relating to aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles that are designed for flight in the earth's atmosphere and in outer space. It pertains to the design and construction of aircraft and space vehicles and of power units, and to the special problems of flight in both the earth's atmosphere and space, as in the flight of air vehicles and in the launching, guidance, and control of missiles, earth satellites, and space vehicles and probes.
Agricultural engineering concerns with solving the engineering problems of providing food and fiber for the people of the world. These problems include designing improved tools to work the soil and harvest the crops, as well as developing water supplies for agriculture and systems for irrigating and draining the land where necessary. It combines the disciplines of mechanical, civil, electrical, and chemical engineering with a basic understanding of biological sciences and agricultural practices. Concern for the properties of agricultural materials and the way they influence engineering designs characterizes agricultural engineers.
Architectural Engineering concerned with the planning, design, construction, and operation of engineered systems for commercial, industrial, and institutional facilities. Engineered systems include electric power, communications and control; lighting; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; and structural systems.
Automobile engineering concerns developing various technologies relating to automobiles and other motor vehicles and their design and management of production.
Biomedical engineering encompasses both engineering science and applied engineering in order to define and solve problems in medical research and clinical medicine for the improvement of health care. Biomedical engineers must have training in anatomy, physiology, and medicine, as well as in engineering. Biomedical engineering entails the design and development of tools and instrumentation to enhance the ability of physicians and life scientists to obtain information on physiological and biological processes, and to aid in the treatment of diseases or other abnormalities. It is also an important component in the design and development of artificial organs, limbs, and other prosthetic devices that replace missing body parts or that enhance deteriorated physiological functions.
Biotechnology is the actions that are used to make or modify the products of living organisms in order to improve plants or animals or to develop useful microorganisms. It is the application of advanced biological techniques in the manufacture of industrial products, including the production of antibiotics, insulin, and interferon, or for environmental management, such as waste recycling. It focuses to the use of engineering methods, instrumentation, and technology to solve medical problems, including the manufacture of artificial limbs and organs, the design and construction of hospitals, the development of community health programs, and the study of ways to control the environment.
Chemical engineering involved in the research, design, improvement, operation, and commercialization of plants, processes, and products for the chemical industry and related fields, such as biotechnology, energy, and materials.
Civil engineering is the broadest of the engineering fields. Civil engineering focuses on the infrastructure of the world which include Water works, Sewers, Dams, Power Plants, Transmission Towers/Lines, Railroads, Highways, Bridges, Tunnels, Irrigation Canals, River Navigation, Shipping Canals, Traffic Control, Mass Transit, Airport Runways, Terminals, Industrial Plant Buildings, Skyscrapers, etc. Among the important subdivisions of the field are construction engineering, irrigation engineering, transportation engineering, soils and foundation engineering, geodetic engineering, hydraulic engineering, and coastal and ocean engineering.
Computer engineering concerns developing and improving computers, storage and printout units and computer information network.
Electrical engineering deals with practical applications involving current flow through conductors; focuses on the design, construction, and operation of electrical systems and equipment. It includes developing, producing and testing of electrical and electronic devices and equipment, such as, generators to produce and distribute electricity, electric motors and other electrical machinery, transmission line.
Electronics engineering concerns the manipulation of voltages and electric currents through the use of various instruments and devices for the purpose of performing useful action with the currents and voltages.
Environmental engineering concerns the activity that works to reduce or prevent the pollution or degradation of areas in which humans live. The environmental engineer places special attention on the biological, chemical, and physical reactions in the air, land, and water environments and on improved technology for integrated management systems, including reuse, recycling, and recovery measures.
Food Science and Technology
Food science is the discipline in which biology, physical sciences, and engineering are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of their deterioration, and the principles underlying food processing. Food technology is the application of food science to the selection, preservation, processing, packaging, distribution, and use of safe, nutritious, and wholesome food. A food scientist studies the physical, microbiological, and chemical makeup of food. Depending on their area of specialization, food scientists may develop ways to process, preserve, package, or store food, according to industry and government specifications and regulations. Consumers seldom think of the vast array of foods and the research and development that has resulted in tasty, nutritious, safe, and convenient foods.
Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells and move genes across species boundaries to produce novel organisms. The technology involves highly sophisticated manipulations of genetic material and other biologically important chemicals. Genes are the chemical blueprints that determine an organism's traits. Moving genes from one organism to another transfers those traits. Through genetic engineering, organisms are given new combination of genes - and therefore new combination of traits - that do not occur in nature and, indeed, cannot be developed by natural means. Such an artificial technology is radically different from traditional plant and animal breeding.
Industrial engineering concerned with managing and improving the economical use of people and equipment through application of cost and work standards and enhancement of the working environment. The industrial engineer integrates people into the design and development of systems, thus requiring an understanding of the physical, physiological, psychological, and other characteristics that govern and affect the performance of individuals and groups in working environments. Industrial engineering is a broad field compared to other engineering disciplines. The major activities of industrial engineering stem from manufacturing industries and include work methods analysis and improvement; work measurement and the establishment of standards; machine tool analysis and design; job and workplace design; plant layout and facility design; materials handling; cost reduction; production planning and scheduling; inventory control, maintenance, and replacement; statistical quality control; scheduling; assembly-line balancing, systems, and procedures; and overall productivity improvement.
Information technology concerns the use of computers, software and services to manage information such as to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve.
Instrumentation and Control Engineering
Instrumentation and Control engineering concerns the design and use of scientific instruments for purposes such as communication, control, computation, detection, or measurement.
Leather technology concerns about the processing of different types of finished leather from raw hides and skins, production of footwear, leather garments, leather goods, environmental management of tanneries, organization and management of leather manufacture and the study of machines utilized in leather production. Leather is turned into a wide variety of articles like footwear, clothing, gloves and many others. Tanners keep the end use very much in mind, and since many of the uses are subject to fashion, such features as eye-appeal, color, texture and drape, while difficult to quantify, are essential to success. Using modern techniques of production engineering, tanners must retain the individuality of each skin and, without losing its appeal, produce leather to a degree of uniformity required by customers. Tanners convert the raw hides and skins of animals into leather.
Marine engineering concerned with the production of propelling machinery and auxiliary equipment for use on ships and other marine vehicles and structures. Marine engineering entails design, construction, installation, operation, and maintenance of main power plants, as well as the associated auxiliary machinery and equipment, for the propulsion of marine vehicles. Marine engineers are likely to have to deal with a wide range of systems, including diesel engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, boilers, heat exchangers, and pumps and compressors; electrical machinery; hydraulic machinery; refrigeration machinery; steam, water, fuel oil, lubricating oil, compressed gas, and electrical systems; equipment for automation and control; equipment for fire fighting and other forms of damage control; and systems for cargo handling. Many marine engineers become involved with structural issues, including inspection and surveying, corrosion protection, and repair.
Materials Science and Engineering
Materials science and engineering concerns the study of the nature, behavior, and use of materials applied to science and technology. The Materials science aims on understanding how the properties or characteristics of materials are based on their atomic scale and microscopic scale structure. It involves the processing, testing, and selection of materials for various design applications.
Mechanical Engineering concerns production, transmission and the use of heat, mechanical power, designing, operating and testing of all kinds of machines and tools.
Mechatronics (or Mechanical and Electronics Engineering) is the combination of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering and computer engineering. The purpose of this interdisciplinary engineering field is the study of automaton from an engineering perspective and serves the purposes of controlling advanced hybrid systems. The word itself is a portmanteau of "Mechanics" and "Electronics".
Metallurgical engineering concerned with the extraction and production of metals and alloys, their adaptation to use, and their performance in service and use. As a science, metallurgy is concerned with the chemical reactions involved in the processes by which metals are produced and the chemical, physical, and mechanical behavior of metallic materials. Separating metals from their ores and preparing them for use, i.e., refining them to a pure state (extractive metallurgy) and converting refined materials into useful finished products (physical metallurgy).
Mining engineering deals with the excavation, discovery, development, exploitation, cleaning, sizing, and dressing of ores and minerals from the Earth's crust through different methods mainly: opencast, underground, and fluid mining. Opencast mining is done either from pits or gouged-out slopes or by surface mining, which involves extraction from a series of successive parallel trenches. This includes dredging or surface mining and hydraulic mining. Underground mining involves extraction from beneath the surface, from depths as great as 10,000 ft (3 km), by any of several methods. Fluid mining is extraction from natural brine, lakes, oceans, or underground waters. Most fluid mining is done by wells.
Naval Architectural Engineering
Naval architectural engineering concerned with the design and production of marine vessels and structures, such as ships, barges, boats, drill rigs, and submarines. The naval architect creates the initial overall concept for a new marine vehicle, integrates the work of other specialists.
Nuclear engineering concerned with the conception, development, handling, control, design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear fueled reactors and energy generating facilities. Nuclear engineering integrates with many other engineering disciplines like reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, thermodynamics, mechanics, metallurgy, chemistry, control and instrumentation, radiation control and shielding, health physics, and economics.
Ocean engineering involved with the development of new equipment concepts and the methodical improvement of techniques which allow humans to operate successfully beneath the ocean surface in order to develop and utilize marine resources.
Petroleum engineering encompasses the study of exploitation of crude and natural gas reservoirs, recovery, production, distribution, and storage of oil, gas, and liquefiable hydrocarbons. Petroleum engineering integrates with the branches of petrophysical, geological, reservoir drilling, production, and construction engineering.
Production Plant Engineering
Production plant engineering involves the design, control, and continuous improvement of integrated systems in order to provide customers with high quality goods and services in a timely, cost-effective manner. It is an interdisciplinary area requiring the collaboration of individuals trained in industrial engineering, manufacturing engineering, product design, marketing, finance, and corporate planning. In many organizations, production engineering activities are carried out by teams of individuals with different skills rather than by a formal production engineering department. Although production engineering originated in the manufacturing sector, recently it has found increasing application in the service industries, such as banking, airlines, and entertainment. Thus “product” denotes both a traditional manufactured product and a service product, such as an insurance policy or a bank loan.
Safety engineering concerns the design of a machine or facility and evaluate the procedures to ensure safe operation and minimize accidents.
Software engineering encompasses the process of design, manufacture, test, and maintenance of software systems. This process considered to be systematic application of scientific and technological knowledge, through the engineering principles, to the production of computer applications, and to the requirements definition, functional specification, design description, program implementation, and test methods that lead up to the code.
Telecommunication engineering specializing in the design, maintenance, and operation of telecommunications facilities and equipment.
Textile Engineering concerns machinery and processes used to produce both natural and synthetic fibers and fabrics.
Transportation engineering concerned with the safe and efficient movement of goods and people through roadways, waterways, railways, subways, airlines, and pipelines.